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Musterlösung Abiturprürung - Redeanalyse
Baffour Ankomah, Why Africa must unite
1. Point out the reasons Ankomah puts forward to justify the idea of an African Union. (comprehension)
find and explain certain aspects
Hier sollst du bestimmte Informationen zu einem einzelnen Aspekt herausfiltern und erklären. Du sollst die Gründe, die Ankomah nennt, um die African Union zu rechtfertigen, darstellen.
The given text is an extract from the speech entitled "Why Africa must unite" by Baffour Ankomah. The text deals with the reasons justifying the idea of an African union.
To present the advantages and the success of such a union Ankomah uses Europe and the USA as two positive examples. By describing the positive aspects of the European Union Ankomah tries to show the possible success that could be reached in Africa, too.
The first reason is that the EU ensures peace in Europe. Wars cannot break out as suddenly and easily as before the foundation of the EU.
Other reasons for creating such a union are that richer countries are able to support poorer countries and that the strict borders between the states get almost lost, allowing free movement of the citizens.
International laws, policies and institutions like a common agricultural policy, a common currency, the European bank and army as well as the NATO developed a stability in Europe and made an improvement of the standard of living possible. These processes could be initiated in Africa, too by the foundation of an African union.
Another reason is that Europe with its strong and individual economies and national institutions nevertheless founded the European Union to become even stronger. Because of that Africa as an underdeveloped and poor continent particularly needs the African union to have a chance of getting stronger according to economical and social aspects.
Furthermore Ankomah refers to the history of the EU. Like the European Union the African union could be able to develop into a strong and powerful organization.
Compared to the reasons justifying the African union Ankomah describes the problems of the foundation of the union and the economic and social development of the country. The European Union and the USA do not support Africa but destroy the idea of becoming an African union.
Because of the missing help the author concludes that the africans have to help themselves instead of waiting for help from other nations.
Die obige Musterlösung einer Zusammenfassung zeigt einige Merkmale, die du dir für deine Prüfung merken solltest:
- Die Zusammenfassung beginnt mit einem Einleitungssatz.
- Die Zusammenfassung bezieht sich auf die Aufgabenstellung, da sie auf die Gründe zur Rechtfertigung der African Union begrenzt ist.
- Die Gründe werden durch Absätze voneinander getrennt und der Text auf diese Weise strukturiert.
- Satzanfänge, wie "The first reason is...", "Other reasons are...", "Another reason is..." machen den Text zusätzlich nachvollziehbar und leiten die Absätze präzise ein.
2. Analyse important features of language concentrating on structural and stylistic devices and make clear how Ankomah tries to convince his audience to support the OAU. (analysis)
describe and explain in detail certain aspects and/or features of the text
Hier sollst du einen Text auf bestimmte Merkmale oder Aspekte hin untersuchen und ihre Bedeutung analysieren. Das bedeutet, dass du diese Aspekte beschreibst und erklärst.
With his speech Ankomah wants to convince the audience to support the OAU, the Organisation of African Union, from which the African Union could evolve.
In order to achieve his aim the author uses several structural and stylistic devices.
Du siehst, dass zu Beginn der Analyse eine Deutungshypothese aufgestellt wurde. Du äußerst an dieser Stelle eine Vermutung zum Inhalt des Textes, welche Absicht der Autor verfolgt oder was durch den Einsatz bestimmter rhetorischer Mittel erreicht werden soll. Diese Hypothese muss noch nicht endgültig richtig sein. Du greifst sie daher im Schlussteil erneut auf und kannst sie dort entweder bestätigen, verwerfen oder verändern.
The first of the six parts or the introduction (ll.1-4) deals with the foundation of the European Union after the Treaty of Rome in 1958. Directly at the beginning Ankomah mentions one of the most important aspects of the EU. The union is able to ensure peace and because of that the last war in Europe is 54 years ago. The audience listening to the speech gets a positive impression of the consequences of such a union.
In the second part (ll. 5-19) Ankomah concentrates on the advantages and the successes of the European Union. He starts with a metaphor (ll.5): "the French and British are still quarreling about whose beef is good enough for the dinner table". This means that there are still small conflicts between Britain and France according to the role of the country and its positive image. The conflicts might be caused by the strong national pride of each country or date back to World War II according to the distribution of power and territories and the colonies in former times. With this metaphor the author describes the existing conflicts in Europe as small and insignificant.
In general the foundation of the EU is a success. To emphasise this and convince the audience the author uses an enumeration of keywords that implicate positive connotations (ll.6). The aspects like peace, cooperation, brotherhood, wealth and power which Europe already achieved are what he aims for Africa. To make these aims realistic goals the unity of Africa is necessary. A union enables the richer countries to support the poorer countries and therefore creates a solidarity and a sense of community.
Ankomah continues with another enumeration combined with anaphoras . He talks about the common institutions and organisations in Europe that make economical and political cooperation easier. The audience gets the impression of a huge amout of positive consequences which should convince it. The word "common" is repeated several times and emphasises solidarity as an aim once again (ll. 10-12).
The author uses another metaphor (l.13) in order to present the protection of Europe by its union: "eggs in one basket safely delivered". Eggs can be damaged easily and you have to be very careful when transporting them. In this metaphor the eggs represent the different countries of Europe that are protected against war by the EU which is illustrated by the basket. That is why a stability is created in Europe improving the quality of life of the European civilians.
To convince the audience of the African Union the author also describes the contrast between Africa and Europe. Europe has a strong economy and powerful national institutions and nevertheless it founded a union to become even stronger. In contrast to that Africa is an underdeveloped and poor country and is not able to develop economically as well as socially without cooperation of the different states. Nevertheless Africa is still missing a supporting union and Ankomah wants its audience and all citizens of Africa, especially the politicians, to change the situation (ll.13-19).
In the third part (ll.20-28) Ankomah refers to the history of the EU. The European Union was not always as strong as today. It had to develop and "evolved from the Common Market which itself evolved from the Coal and Steel Commission formed in 1951" (ll.22). Because of this development the author wants to motivate the audience that Africa should be able to develop a strong union. This is why the OAU is extremely important as a step in the development. The African union should evolve from the OAU.
Ankomah refers to Nkrumah, the former president of Ghana. With the help of quotations (l.20) the author tries to create a realistic impression and underlines that his opinion is supported by other politicians. But the problem at the moment is that the OAU is almost only for discussions and not really successful concerning its actions ("a talking shop", ll.25). According to Nkrumah the OAU has been "reduced to a Charter and toothless organization" (ll.27). This metaphor expresses that the organisation is unfortunately not very powerful and therefore has to be supported.
The fourth part deals with the African union and the role of the USA and Europe (ll.29-37). To involve the audience in the speech Ankomah addresses it with a question (l.37). The author cannot understand why Europe supported by the EU and America benefitting from the United States of America do not help but destroy the plan of an African union.
Ankomah refers to Museveni, the president of Uganda. Museveni describes how the Europeans and Americans "frustrate" all Africans. According to him this behaviour dates back to the imperialism and the period of American and British colonialism when the powerful countries exploited Africa for example by slavery. Ankomah repeats the question in short to underline his incomprehension: "Why in heaven did they do that?" (l.37).
In the following fifth part of the speech all aims (according to Nkrumah) which have to be realised to create an African union are listed (ll. 38-49). With a union government of African states and a common economic and industrial programme, trade could be easier, faster and cheaper and competition would be possible. The common market and common currency would even support this. With a common policy all citizens would have the same rights and security of the countries could be created and ensured. By creating a common citizenship racial discrimination would decline.
In the last part (ll. 50-54), the conclusion of the speech, the author again asks a rhetorical question (ll.50). He asks the audience why America and Europe destroyed the idea of an African union. The industrialised states had the same aims as Africa now has and because of that they should be able to understand the developing countries. Ankomah accuses the USA and Europe and appeals to the Africans to help themselves (ll.52). He addresses the audience directly and raise their attention by saying "Ladies and Gentlemen" (l.55). This appellation functions as an announcement of an important message. Likewise, the exclamation at the end of the speech "[...]now is the time!" (ll.54) is supposed to motivate the Africans.
All in all, Ankomah uses this speech in order to convince the audience of the need for an African union. To underline his intention he uses lots of positive examples, metaphors, quotations and rhetorical questions.
Die obige Musterlösung einer Analyse zeigt einige Merkmale, die du dir für deine Prüfung merken solltest:
- Die Analyse wird durch eine Deutungshypothese eingeleitet, die im Schlussteil erneut aufgegriffen wird.
- Die Analyse orientiert sich am Aufbau der Rede und die Rede wird in thematisch abgegrenzte Abschnitte gegliedert.
- Jeder neue Gedanke wird in einem eigenen Absatz behandelt, sodass der Text strukturiert und für den Leser nachvollziehbar ist.
- Die rhetorischen Mittel werden nicht nur genannt, sondern gedeutet und in den thematischen Kontext eingeordnet.
3.a) By also referring to some major conflicts in Africa as well as the role of the UN and the USA comment on Ankomah's belief "that nobody is going to save Africa but Africans themselves". (evaluation)
state clearly your opinions on the topic and support your views with evidence
Du musst deine eigene Meinung begründet darstellen und durch Textbelege stützen.
In his speech Ankomah underlines "that nobody is going to save Africa but Africans themselves". If you take into consideration the role of the United Nations (UN) and the USA this opinion is justified.
The UN is a worldwide organisation with 192 member states. Its options and aims are the prevention of war, the achievement of human rights and the fight against diseases. Special peacekeeping troops (so called "blue helmets") are sent to affected countries (e.g. in war). Their tasks are conflict and post-conflict prevention conflict management, the ensurance of security and the promotion of economic development.
Although the UN is a worldwide organisation the peacekeeping missions were not always successful. In the Congo the troops could not reach a peaceful agreement and security in the country. According to their law the UN peacekeeping troops are not allowed to use military forces except for self-defense. They had an inactive and observing function in the Congo and were not able to cope with the complex situation.
After the failure in the 1960s the Brahimi-report was developed. Because of this report the troops got more active and powerful. Additionally, the troops concentrate on the underlying causes of wars or conflict situations which have not been addressed before. Some of these reasons are for example bad government or tyranny and the social and economical underdevelopment leading to poverty.
Nevertheless there were still peacekeeping missions that were not successful. In 1994 there was a genocide in Rwanda. The UN sent troops to help solving the conflicts between the rebells and the two racial groups Hutu and Tutsi. But the troops had the order to rescue only people of foreign nationalities. The African civilians were left in the country and in 100 days almost 1,000,000 people died. Although the media made the genocide public to the Western world nothing happened.
This is one of the problems peacekeeping organisations have. The public interest in such affairs and missions is only very small.
Another problem in Rwanda but also in general is that the troops are not always available. Sometimes not enough "blue helmets" can be sent into a conflict area. These small groups often have not enough authority in a region where the basis for peace is completely missing.
Another essential problem is the financing of the UN peacekeeping missions. Regarding this the USA play an important role. Although they provide only around 0,5% of the UN personnel the USA finances about 25% of the UN budget.
The USA does not have a positive image according to peacekeeping because most people associate war (e.g. the Iraq war) instead of peace with America.
This sounds really hopeless for the people in conflict areas and justifies Ankomah's statement.
Nevertheless there are also lots of successful peacekeeping missions. And you also have to take into account that the UN troops are not able to rebuild a whole nation. Their options are conflict prevention and management as well as the help for self-help. They have to initiate a process for the creation of a secure policy and the improvement of the social status of the people.
In my opinion people in conflict situations should not be left alone with their problems. The UN member states have to act and the troops must be sent into conflict areas.
To my mind the affected countries need to be empowered to help themselves. This is significant because a country cannot be dependent on help from other countries or organisations like the UN for ever. The most important aspect is that the countries need to be enabled to develop themselves.
From my point of view a combination of help and support from the UN and self-help from the (developing) affected countries would be the best and most successful solution.
Die obige Musterlösung einer Stellungnahme zeigt einige Merkmale, die du dir für deine Prüfung merken solltest:
- Die Stellungnahme beginnt mit einem einleitenden Satz, in welchem die Aussage, auf welche du dich beziehen solltest, genannt wird.
- Die Argumentation wird durch zusätzliches Wissen zur UN und zu Konflikten in Afrika gestützt.
- Zum Schluss wird die Stellungnahme durch eine persönliche, begründete Einschätzung abgeschlossen.
- Satzanfänge wie "To my mind...", "From my point of view...", "In my opinion..." verdeutlichen, dass es sich hier um persönliche Einschätzungen handelt.
3b) Imagine you are an African victim of a conflict area in Africa like Paul R. from the film Hotel Rwanda. Write a letter to Ankomah responding to his ideas and telling him about your specific problems. (re-creation of text)
write a letter
write a text with specific features of a letter
Du musst hier die Eigenschaften eines formellen Briefes beachten und glaubhaft die Perspektive einer Person in einem Kriegsgebiet in Afrika einnehmen.
Dear Mr Ankomah,
I am writing you in response to your idea to unite the African nations and to form the African Union. Further, I would like to tell you about the dreadful situation I am in.
I live in Rwanda, a conflict area in the east of Africa, with my family and we have a lot of issues. First of all, our country is poor and has a weak economy. Some Hutu extremists blame this on the Tutsis and try to extinguish them. We see people that are killed every day and nobody is safe anymore. Even though we need help desperately, the work of the UN and the "blue helmets" is not always sufficient. They state that they are peace-keepers rather than peace-makers. Moreover, they are not allowed to intervene in the conflict between the Hutu and the Tutsi.
This is why I support your opinion that Africans have to help themselves by founding a union. Due to their success, the USA and the EU can be regarded as role models for Africa. In these unions less developed or less wealthy nations are supported by richer member states. Despite smaller conflicts they live in peace and have a strong economy.
Furthermore I am disappointed by the the richer and industrialised nations and do not believe that they will help Africa as much as we need it. These nations do not support the idea of the African Union. I would argue that they do not want to give up their privileges of being richer and more successful than other countries.
In my opinion the African Union with a union government, a common economic programme, a common trade system, a common monetary zone as well as a central bank could be economically prosperous. Trade could be easier and would lead to growing wealth in African nations.
Likewise, I am in favour of the demand for a common system of defence and a common African army because this could help to prevent conlficts like civil wars within Africa. To my mind peace is the foundation for a functioning nation that is able to develop a strong economy and prosperity.
Since our area and my family is in a miserable situation, I plead you not to stop your effort to unite Africa.
Die obige Musterlösung eines Briefes zeigt einige Merkmale, die du dir für deine Prüfung merken solltest:
- Der Brief beginnt mit einer zum Kontext passenden Anrede.
- Auf die Anrede folgt ein einleitender Satz, in dem der Empfänger erfährt, wieso er diesen Brief erhält. Der Verfasser gibt an dieser Stelle seine Absicht/Intention an.
- Der Brief ist aus der Perspektive einer Person in Afrika und in der Ich-Perspektive verfasst.
- Der Brief bezieht sich auf die Aufgabenstellung: Zunächst werden spezifische Probleme aufgezeigt und darauf folgt die Bezugnahme auf die African Union.
- Der Brief wird durch eine zum Kontext passende Verabschiedung abgeschlossen.